Services for Food and Nutrition

Bioassays: Preclinical Studies For Health Function Evaluation

Biologically relevant | Cost Effective | Fast Turnaround

As a step forward from chemistry "test tube" testing, we provide biological assays to assess the health effects of a material in biological systems using human cells and enzymes as test models. These assays provide biologically relevant, cost effective and fast turnaround preclinical information. Previous studies have found intricate connections between oxidative stress and chronic health conditions, and that materials containing high antioxidant and phytonutrient content often exhibit significant health functions. We offer biological investigations that provide insights into following potential health benefits of a material:

  • Bioavailability, bioabsorption, and biouptake study via Caco-2 permeability assay (in vitro human intestinal membrane)
  • Anti-inflammatory  Cellular cytokines (TNF-alpha, interleukins) inhibition, NFκB, PGE2, LOX, COX, and PLA2 inhibition analysis
  • Oxidative stress analysis for biological samples   in vivo oxidative stress reduction analysis via stress biomarkers (MDA, GSH/GSSG, isoprostanes, 3-nitrotyrosine, 8-OHdG, SOD, catalase, etc.)
  • Antioxidation effect in a biological system  Cellular Nrf2 activation, cellular antioxidant assay (CAA),  
  • Diabetes and weight management   insulin secretion, insulin receptor activity, glucose transport, uptake, and metabolism, and carbohydrate digestion as biomarkers 
  • Immune boost  via cellular interleukins (ILs) expression
  • Anti-allergy property  via Nrf2 expression
  • Adaptogenic function   via neuronal stress-responsive hormone and heat shock protein studies
  • Neuroprotective function   via level of neuronal DNA damage, neuronal antioxidant, and glial filament protein expression
  • Cardiovascular and blood pressure  via ACE inhibition
  • Mitochondria health  mitochondrial ROS level
  • Detoxification and liver function   Phase I and Phase II liver enzymes, liver function biomarkers in serum
  • Energy metabolism investigation impact of a material on cellular and mitochondrial potential, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and metabolic gene expression
  • Gout improvement  via xanthine oxidase inhibition  
  • Anti-cancer Function evaluation: cancer cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion as biomarkers 
  • Anti-aging  SIRT-1, telomerase activity as biomarkers
  • Hair growth; Hair loss prevention  assess the impact of a product on hair growth
  • Neurite outgrowth assay  assesses the neurite outgrowth using a widely used neuronal model based on neuron growth factor (NGF)-stimulated mammalian cells
  • Mitochondria health: mitochondrial biogenesis
  • Preclinical bioassays for skin care products  UV protection, melanin (age spot) inhibition, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory

Study Models

  • Human and mamalian cell lines: HepG2, PC3, beta-cells,   (L929, Vero, IMR-90, MRC-5, CHO, HL-60, etc.)
  • Primary cells: hepatocytes, primary fibroblast or keratinocyte cultures
  • Caco-2: in vitro human intestinal mucosa
  • Isolated human blood cells: PBMC, lymphocytes, etc.
  • 3D skin model: full thickness epidermis
  • Microtissues: liver microtissue, primary pancreatic islets


Back to Core Services by Stage

BioAssay Service List

BioAvailability, BioAbsorption and BioUptake Service Code
Caco-2 Permeability Assay: biouptake from human intestine to blood  
Caco-2 Cellular Uptake Assay: biouptake into caco-2 cells (or other cells as requested)  
Anti-Inflammatory Service Code
Cellular Anti-Inflammatory Assay (TNF-alpha inhibition) A128_TNF-a
Cellular Anti-Inflammatory Assay (interleukins including IL-1 or IL-6, or other IL inhibition)
Cellular Anti-Inflammatory Assay (NFkB inhibition) A128_NFkB
Cellular Anti-inflammatory Assay (PGE2 Inhibition)  A128_PGE2
Enzymatic cyclooxygenase inhibition assay (COX-1, COX-2) A136
Enzymatic lipoxygenase inhibition assay (LOX-5, LOX-15) A131
Enzymatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) Inhibition Assay (secretory PLA2, Type V)
Oxidative Stress Analysis for Clinical and Preclinical Studies  Service Code
Lipid Peroxidation  
TBARS (based on MDA quantification)  
Isoprostanes (F2-isoprostanes, F2-isoPs)  
Malondialdehyde (MDA)  
Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)  
Lipid hydroperoxide (LOP)  
Protein Damage  
Protein Carbonyl Content (POC)  
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE)  
DNA/RNA Damage  
8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)  
8-Hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG)  
in vivo Antioxidant  
Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD)  
Glutathione (GSH)  
Glutathione/Oxidized Glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio  
Total Glutathione (GSH+GSSG)  
Glutathione S-transferase (GST)  
Glutathione Reductase (GR)  
Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)  
in vivo ORAC  
in vivo ROS Level  
General ROS level via DHR6G Assay  
Hydrogen peroxide/peroxidase  
Nitric oxide (in nitrite and nitrate forms NOx)  
Supporting Analysis  
Hemoglobin, creatinine (urine/blood)  
Antioxidation Function  Service Code
Cellular Nrf2 Assay (Nrf2) Nrf2
Cellular Antioxidant Assay (CAA) A122
Diabetes/Weight Management  Service Code
   Glucose Uptake and Metabolism Assays  
Inhibition of glucose uptake from intestine to blood (based on caco-2 cells) A129_caco-2
Cellular glucose uptake assay  A129_glucose
Cellular glucose metabolism assay: glycogen synthesis  A129_glycogen
    Insulin Secretion and insulin Sensitivity  
Insulin secretion assay: assay via pancreatic cells and primary pancreatic islets  A129_insulin
Cellular insulin receptor assay  A129_CIR
Enzymatic PTP1B Inhibition Assay H101
   Carbohydrate Digestion Inhibition   
 Enzymatic α-amylase inhibitory activity  A129_amylase
 Enzymatic α-glucosidase inhibitory activity  A129_glucosidase
Immune Boost  
Cellular Interleukins (ILs) Assay  
Anti-allergy property  
cellular Nrf2 expression Assay  
Adaptogenic studies via neuronal cells  
Neuroprotective studies via neuronal cells  
Cardiovascular and blood pressure via enzymatic ACE (angiotensin-converting-enzyme) inhibition analysis   
Mitochondria Health  
Mitochondrial Biogenesis Assay  
Detoxification and Liver Function Service Code
Phase I liver enzymes in human microtissue: cytochrome P450 (CYP)  
Phase II liver enzymes in human liver microtissue  
UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UGT)  
Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)  
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)  
Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL)  
Superoxide dismutase (SOD)  
Catalase (CAT)  
Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)  
Glutathione reductase (GR)  
Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs)  
Quinone reductase (QR)  
Energy Metabolism Investigation  
Oxidative phosphorylation: Cellular oxidative consumption rate assay  
Cellular hexokinase assay  
Cellular ECAR (extracellular acidification) assay  
Cellular enzymatic activity and metabolic gene expression investigation  
Cellular AMPK assay  
Cellular metabolic gene expression assay  
Gout Improvement  
Enzymatic xanthine oxidase inhibiition assay  
Anti-Aging Service Code
Cellular Anti-Aging Assay (SIRT 1 as biomarker) A127_SIRT1
Cellular Anti-Aging Assay (telomerase activity as biomarker)
Anti-Cancer Service Code
Cancer Cell Viability Assay A125
Cancer Cell Anti-proliferation Assay  
Cancerl Cell mTOR inhibition Assay  
Cancer Cell Apoptosis Assay  
Cancer Cell Invasion Assay  
Hair Growth/Hair Loss Prevention Assay  
Neurite outgrowth assay  
Preclinical bioassays for skin care products Service Code
Skin Cell UV Protection Assay (SCUV) A145
Skin Brightening Effect   
Cellular Melanin Pigmentation Inhibition Assay A130
Enzymatic Tyrosinase Inhibition Assay
Anti-wrinkle Effect 
Enzymatic Collagenase Inhibition Assay
Enzymatic Elastase Inhibition Assay  
Skin Cell Antioxidant Assay (SCAA) A144
Skin Cell Anti-aging Assay (via telomerase activity) A146
Skin Cell Anti-inflammatory Assay (TNF-alpha as biomarker) SC_TNF_a
Skin Cell Anti-inflammatory Assay (interleukins as biomarker (IL-1, IL-6, or other interleukins) SC_interleukin
Skin Cell Anti-inflammatory Assay (NFkB as biomarker) SC_NFkB
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Service Code
Cellular Anti-Microbial Adhesion Assay (CMA) A126

Back to top

Next Stage

Stage 3 - Clinical Studies as a final validation of the biological benefits and functions.